The Local Governance Performance Index (LGPI) is designed to help governments and citizens assess and benchmark their current success in governance and social service provision. It is based on citizen household surveys implemented to be representative at the local and national levels. The LGPI was piloted in Tunisia in February-March 2015, where it was implemented in 3 municipalities in a 6 governorates (a total of 18 municipalities and 3659 interviews). The survey comprises of batteries on citizen engagement at the local and national level, and citizens’ experience with health, education, security, public administration and other services. The results allow us to examine cross-sectoral and subnational variation in governance and service provision. It also can be used to understand how socioeconomic status, gender, and other demographic factors are related to citizens’ engagement, governance, and quality service provision. The LGPI helps pinpoint, diagnose and foster discussion regarding areas of need, aids in the formulation of policy recommendations, and provides a benchmark for assessing policy implementation.
Social Institutions and Governance
This project aims to develop a unified theory of social institutions in order to understand how, when and where they promote good governance and improve daily lives. Efforts to design political institutions and economic policies that promote good governance and development frequently fail and are rarely uniformly successful at the subnational level. This suggests that local norms and rules within societies affect governance and development. However, social institutions -- or the rules establishing how authority is exercised, actors constrained, and transgressors sanctioned -- are poorly measured, insufficiently theorized, and their consequences often overlooked. This study will conceptualize and measure social institutions, focusing on the strength, nature and content of the norms and rules governing social interactions. Focusing on social institutions governing gender and ethnic relations, it takes a multi-method approach, leveraging surveys, experiments, focus groups and stakeholder interviewers in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia (data collection in one country per year 2016-2019) to examine the links between social institutions and governance. The study will yield important new datasets that not only allow researchers to examine theoretical questions regarding governance and development outcomes, but also aids policymakers, development specialists and citizens in assessing needs across communities, establishing baselines for measuring change during policy reforms.
In 2017 GLD will start a new project on Urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa thanks to generous support from the Swedish Research Council Formas.
Rapid and unplanned urban growth creates significant governance challenges, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is urbanizing at a faster rate than any other region of the world. Unplanned or inadequately managed urban expansion leads to pollution and environmental degradation, together with unsustainable production and consumption patterns. It also creates inequalities when the necessary infrastructure is not developed or when policies are not implemented to ensure that the benefits of city life are shared equally; urban areas are more unequal than rural areas and hundreds of millions of the world’s urban poor live in sub-standard conditions (UN 2015). As more citizens in African countries move to the cities, the governance of urban areas becomes a key challenge. Yet, our understanding of governance in the face of urbanization is grossly limited and needs further investigation. In the proposed project, we explore governance in the major cities of three rapidly urbanizing, low-income countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. We argue that the variation in governance and key development outcomes is driven not only by formal government institutions but also social institutions. Through a study of Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia, we examine the role of social institutions in a multi-method inquiry into how rules and norms governing ethnic and gender relations affect governance. We examine the impact of social and political institutions on the quality of governance and service provision, and on the inequalities within these based on traditional power structures of class, ethnicity, gender, and geographic location. To do so, we employ a multi-method approach to forming a broad conceptual framework for studying these relationships including focus groups, computer-assisted surveys with embedded experiments, in-depth case studies, and the Local Governance Performance Index (LGPI), which is a unique, multifaceted, survey-based measure of local governance and development that provides comparative data at the subnational level.
The project on Gender, Governance and Representation is a collaborative effort between the Program on Governance and Local Development at Gothenburg, Ragnhild Muriaas and Lise Rakner at the Department of Comparative Politics in Bergen, Norway, Vibeke Wang at the Christian Michelsen Institute in Bergen, Norway, and Boniface Dulani at Chancellor College, University of Malawi. The study seeks to understand the drivers of governance and service provision at the local level, paying particular attention to the attitudes toward and experiences of women. It will draw on qualitative case study research, a public opinion survey that includes core components of the Local Governance Performance Index (LGPI), and elite interviews at the municipal level. It is part of a larger cross-national project led by the Chr. Michelsen Institute on the impact of gender based aid on representation as well as the efforts to measure local governance cross-nationally through the LGPI. This study is particularly important in Malawi today, as elected local councils were only reintroduced in 2014 and debates over decentralization are on-going.
Officials’ interaction with citizens at the local level and the provision of basic services can shape how citizens see the state and their trust in public officials. It is thus not surprising that Tunisia has debated and passed new laws governing local government in the aftermath of the 2011 revolution. Yet, little is known of the nature of local governance in Tunisia, the capacity and practices of local governments, the variation in the provision of basic services across the country. The project on Governance and Service Delivery in Post-Revolutionary Tunisia sheds light on these questions. The first stage was the implementation of the Local Governance Performance Index (LGPI) in 18 municipalities, including three in each of six governorates. The goal of the project is to extend this assessment to all 24 governorates in Tunisia, and to complement the survey data with studies of municipalities and health facilities in these same municipalities. Taken together, this will provide a comprehensive picture of the success and challenges facing different municipalities, thus helping citizens, government officials and development specialists to pinpoint needs, direct efforts and resources appropriately, and measure progress.