LGPI 2019 Urbanisation in Sub Saharan Africa: Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia








In September 2016, GLD was awarded a 9,1 million SEK (approx. 1,1 million USD) grant for studying urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa. The project ran from 2017-2021.

Rapid and unplanned urban growth creates significant governance challenges, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is urbanizing at a faster rate than any other region of the world. Unplanned or inadequately managed urban expansion leads to pollution and environmental degradation, together with unsustainable production and consumption patterns. It also creates inequalities when the necessary infrastructure is not developed or when policies are not implemented to ensure that the benefits of city life are shared equally; urban areas are more unequal than rural areas, and hundreds of millions of the world’s urban poor live in sub-standard conditions (UN 2015). As more citizens in African countries move to the cities, the governance of urban areas becomes a key challenge. Yet, our understanding of governance in the face of urbanization is grossly limited and needs further investigation.

The project explored governance in the major cities of three rapidly urbanizing, low-income countries: Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia. It argued that the variation in governance and key development outcomes is driven not only by formal government institutions but also social institutions. Through a study of Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia, we examined the role of social institutions in a multi-method inquiry into how rules and norms governing ethnic and gender relations affect governance. We examined the impact of social and political institutions on the quality of governance and service provision and on the inequalities within these based on traditional power structures of class, ethnicity, gender, and geographic location. To do so, we employed a multi-method approach to forming a broad conceptual framework for studying these relationships, including focus groups, computer-assisted surveys with embedded experiments, in-depth case studies, and the Local Governance Process Indicators (LGPI), which is a unique, multifaceted, survey-based measure of local governance and development that provides comparative data at the subnational level.



This document describes how to utilize the LGPI codebook and LGPI data for your research: LGPI SURVEY 2019 - A USER GUIDE.




This project was supported by The Governance Challenge of Urbanization grant (FORMAS – 2016-00228), PI: Ellen Lust.

Project Funders